Was Barack Obama's 2007/8 campaign the first successful 'Internet campaign'?

Was Barack Obama’s 2007/8 campaign the first successful ‘Internet campaign’?

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simple sentences,not complicated or strong too much as the language second language.

Key Readings (all readings available as electronic resources through the library catalogue):

Kavanagh, D. (1997). The Labour Campaign. Parliamentary Affairs, 50(4), 533–541.

Lees-Marshment, J. (2001). The product, sales and market-oriented party: How Labour learnt to market the product, not just the presentation. European Journal of

Marketing, 35(9/10), 1074–1084.

Kaid, L. L. (2009). Changing and Staying the Same: Communication in Campaign 2008. Journalism Studies, 10(3), 417–423.

Kreiss, D., & Howard, P. N. (2010). New Challenges to Political Privacy: Lessons from the First U.S. Presidential Race in the Web 2.0 Era. International Journal of

Communication, 4, 1032–1050.

Wright, S. (2011). Politics as usual? Revolution, normalization and a new agenda for online deliberation. New Media & Society, 14(2), 244–261.

Further Readings:

Cogburn, D. L., & Espinoza-Vasquez, F. K. (2011). From Networked Nominee to Networked Nation: Examining the Impact of Web 2.0 and Social Media on Political

Participation and Civic Engagement in the 2008 Obama Campaign. Journal of Political Marketing, 10(1-2), 189–213.

English, K., Sweetser, K. D., & Ancu, M. (2011). YouTube-ification of Political Talk: An Examination of Persuasion Appeals in Viral Video. American Behavioral

Scientist, 55(6), 733–748.

Gehl, R. W. (2011). The archive and the processor: The internal logic of Web 2.0. New Media & Society, 13(8), 1228–1244.

Gibson, R. K., Margolis, M., Resnick, D., & Ward, S. J. (2003). Election Campaigning on the WWW in the USA and UK: A Comparative Analysis. Party Politics, 9(1), 47–75.

Jackson, N., & Lilleker, D. (2009). Building an Architecture of Participation? Political Parties and Web 2.0 in Britain. Journal of Information, Technology and

Politics, 6(3), 232–250.

Levenshus, A. (2010). Online Relationship Management in a Presidential Campaign: A Case Study of the Obama Campaign’s Management of Its Internet Integrated Grassroots

Effort. Journal of Public Relations Research, 22(3), 313–335.

Norris, P. (2003). Preaching to the Converted?: Pluralism, Participation and Party Websites. Party Politics, 9(1), 21–45.

Vaccari, C. (2012). From echo chamber to persuasive device? Rethinking the role of the Internet in campaigns
Gibson, R. K., & Rommele, a. (2009). Measuring the Professionalization of Political Campaigning. Party Politics, 15(3), 265–293.

Hodess, R., Tedesco, J. C., & Kaid, L. L. (2000). British Party Election Broadcasts: A Comparison of 1992 and 1997. The Harvard International Journal of

Press/Politics, 5(4), 55–70.

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